Depression in rural communities validating the ces d scale
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. By the year 2020, depression is projected to be the second leading cause of disability adjusted life years and the fourth leading contributor to burden of disease.1 2 The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is one of the most common instruments used to measure depression in non-clinical populations.3 Despite the fact that there are several studies to detect depression in the community using different measures, the latent factor structure for most measures of depression in many low-income countries, particularly in almost all African countries, is not well understood.Mere reliance on the total score of depression measures without understanding their latent factor structure is not sounding for reasons associated with validity.
CES-D is significantly associated with measures of adversities, specifically, premigration living difficulties (r=0.545, p Conclusions Unlike previous findings among Eritreans living in USA, second-order two factors structure of CES-D best fitted the data for Eritrean refugees living in Ethiopia; this implies that it is important to address culture for the assessment and intervention of depression.
Result First-order two factors with second-order common factor structure of CES-D (correlated error terms) yielded the best fit to the data (Comparative Fit Index =0.975; root mean square error of approximation=0.040 [90% CI 0.032 to 0.047]).
The 16 items defining depressive affect were internally consistent (Cronbach’s α=0.932) and internal consistency of the 4 items defining positive affect was relatively weak (Cronbach’s α=0.703).
Measures The CES-D Scale, Primary Care PTSD (PC-PTSD) screener, premigration and postmigration living difficulties checklist, Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3), Sense of Coherence Scale (So C-13), Coping Style Scale and fast alcohol screening test (FAST) were administered concurrently.
Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test prespecified factor structures of CES-D.