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However, in late 2005 and early 2006, the issue of stock options backdating gained a wider audience.

Numerous financial analysts replicated and expanded upon the prior academic research, developing lists of companies whose stock price performance immediately after options grants to senior management (the purported dates of which can be ascertained by inspecting a company's Form 4 filings, generally available online at the SEC's website) was suspicious.

Since the advent of stock option backdating, corporate policies have moved first toward a posture of encouraging backdating as a standard business practice, but then toward a posture of avoidance as public scandals emerged and investigations into fraudulent or dishonest business practices increased despite a commonly held belief that backdating was an acceptable and legal practice.

In the modern business world, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has all but eliminated fraudulent options backdating by requiring companies to report all options issuances within 2 days of the date of issue.

For instance, public companies generally grant stock options in accordance with a formal stock option plan approved by shareholders at an annual meeting.

Many companies' stock option plans provide that stock options must be granted at an exercise price no lower than fair market value on the date of the option grant.

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This alternative instructional strategy offers the flexibility to meet individual student needs, interests, and styles of learning.The SEC’s opinions regarding backdating and fraud were primarily due to the various tax rules that apply when issuing “in the money” stock options versus the much different – and more financially beneficial – tax rules that apply when issuing “at the money” or "out of the money" stock options.Additionally, companies can use backdating to produce greater executive incomes without having to report higher expenses to their shareholders, which can lower company earnings and/or cause the company to fall short of earnings predictions and public expectations. In independent study, a student is guided by a teacher but usually does not take classes with other students every day. Independent study is available to children and adults.Many school districts offer this type of education, but some do not.

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